In "A DIFFERENT FORM OF CAPITALISM" for Johns Hopkins Magazine, Dale Keiger wrote:
"In working on his latest book, CHALLENGE TO AMERICA, Pulitzer Prize winner Hedrick Smith has been observing the enormous rise in power of the East Asian economy. "Not just Japan," he says, "but the 'mini-dragons' [Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong], and beyond them Malaysia, Indonesia, and, the biggest of all, China..
"Their economies operate differently from ours," notes Smith, an editor-in-residence at Hopkins's Nitze School of Advanced International Studies. "They have a different form of capitalism. They operate from Confucian standards." Smith contrasts the Confucian ideal with standard American capitalism. The traditional American belief has been that each person working for individual gain will result in the greatest common good. A good American is supposed to work hard for his or her own aggrandizement; a good American corporation for the immediate profit of the shareholders..
Confucianism, he says, emphasizes hard work "as an obligation to society, not just to personally getting ahead." In the Confucian tradition, a worker feels strong social pressure to work hard as a form of respect to ancestors, the company, and the broader society. Professional obligations are mutual, Smith points out; for example, companies in Confucian societies go to great lengths to retain their workers. --DK"
Paul Henry Nitze, and Hedrick Smith are Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) members. Not many people heard of the CFR or know how they operate. The group has purposely maintained a low profile while controlling public opinion throughout the world for over 100 years. Branches in Western European and Commonwealth nations are called Institutes of International Affairs (Britain (R(oyal)IIA, Canadian(CIIA), New Zealand(NZIIA), Australian(AIIA), South African(SAIIA),. India(IIIA), and Netherlands(NIIA)). Branches in Eastern European and East Asian Nations are called Institutes of Pacific Relations (Japanese (JIPR), Chinese (CIPR), and Russian (RIPR)).
Nitze has been a fixture in Washington since 1946 and has served in the State Department and as Secretary of the Navy. In 1989 Nitze founded the Paul H. Nitze School for Advanced International Studies (SAIS) at Johns Hopkins University. In 1993 Nitze published a book titled TENSION BETWEEN OPPOSITES: REFLECTIONS ON THE PRACTICES AND THEORY OF POLITICS.
When a CFR member tries to make a difference it is a difference designed to create tension between two or more target groups. Nitze's targets have been the US, Russia, and Asia. When nuclear weapons made their ominous debut at the end of World War II, Nitze was there. As Vice-Chairman of the US Strategic Bombing Survey, Nitze witnessed first-hand the effects of the A-bomb at the sites of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Hadley Cantril and Lloyd Free were Princeton University Social Psychologists; researchers; and members of the intelligence community. CFR member Nelson Rockefeller funded them to develop psycho-political policy strategies and techniques. In "How Nations See Each Other." (1953) Cantril writes about a tool, developed prior to 1939, to investigate people's perception of their nationality and other nationalities. The tool became known as the Buchanan-Cantril "Adjective Check List." 
The "Adjective Check List", contained twelve adjectives: Hard-working; Intelligent; Practical; Generous; Brave; Progressive; Self-Controlled; Peace-Loving; Conceited; Cruel; Domineering; Backward. It was based on the observation people tend to ascribe to their group a set of characteristics different from the character traits ascribed to other groups. The resulting self-image is predominantly flattering, while their picture of "others" is strongly influenced by how much they perceive those others to be like themselves. The relative "similarity" or dissimilarity" between group stereotypes is a useful indicator of the degree of like or dislike between groups or nations. 
The adjective check-list is used to help script and test the effectiveness of psycho-political operations focused at entire nations. Groups are tested to determine the degree of like/dislike between them. The Information is used to script the PSYOP. The PSYOP is carried out without the groups knowledge. The groups are tested again. The increase or decrease of like/dislike indicates the PSYOP's effectiveness.
Adolph Hitler, and his propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels warped History by ignoring it completely, and stressing favorable and unfavorable truths to cause tension and hate between different groups of people. Goebbels' work fascinated CFR member Edward R. Murrow. The Rockefeller Foundation funded Murrow to perform a systematic analysis of Nazi radio propaganda techniques and the political use of radio.
Murrow, with help from Cantril and Free, began the project at Princeton in 1940. The Princeton Listening Center was set up in an old house on Alexander Street, belonging to Princeton's Institute of Advanced Study (IASP). IASP was a reasonable copy of the Royal Institute of International Affairs chief Oxford headquarters, All Souls College. CFR member Abraham Flexner of Rockefeller's General Education Board and foundation administrator, organized it from plans drawn by Tom Jones, one of the Royal Institute of International Affairs most active intriguers and foundations administrators. 
This project resulted in a world wide monitoring and broadcasting Government agency called the Foreign Broadcast Intelligence Service (FBIS). Monitoring stations sprang up near Washington DC, Portland, San Francisco, Texas, Puerto Rico, and a London office in liaison with the British Broadcasting Corporation. FBIS would 1. broadcast our propaganda; 2. monitor enemy propaganda; 3. provide special reports analyzing propaganda, ours and the enemies; and 4. collect and disseminate intelligence to predict Axis moves, both military and political. FBIS collected around 500,000 words a day in 15 languages from 25 transmitters. Daily reports and analyses of the information were furnished to over 500 government officials. FBIS became a regular part of the Government's intelligence service.
FBIS was a Psychological Warfare machine. FBIS became the United States Information Agency (USIA). The USIA was established to achieve US foreign policy by influencing public attitude at home and abroad using psycho-political policy strategies. The USIA Office of Research and reference service prepares data on psychological factors and propaganda problems considered by the Policy Planning Board in formulating psycho-political information policies for the National Security Council. Murrow would subsequently be named head of the USIA. Murrow became the Propaganda minister for the US -- America's Joseph Goebbels. 
In his book The Human Dimension (Rutgers Univ. Press 1967), Cantril recommends learning about people's wants, desires and beliefs. He recommends using this information to manipulate people's reality worlds so they perceive their own best interests are being served, while in fact, some other plan and policy are carried out. The NSC, the CIA. the USIA, and the Department of State would decide the policy. Cantril writes about a special group, called the Psychological Strategy Board, tasked with coordinating this effort.
Cantril doesn't tell the reader the CFR controls the NSC, the CIA, the USIA and the State Department. Or, that the Psychological Strategy board was designed and directed by CFR member Gordan Gray and his consultant CFR member Henry Kissinger. Or, that the Psychological Strategy board, would later became the Operations Coordinating Board, and then the "Special Group." This small group was helped by a "Secret Team" of about 3000 Council of Foreign Relations members within the administration and spread throughout private industry. Cantril doesn't tell the reader the CFR is a branch of an International Group of co-conspirators.
Cantril's misinformation is an example of a tactic of deception called a "Limited Hangout." "Limited Hangouts" are used to shape public opinion to support the aims of well planned psychological operations. Stories are carefully crafted to contain some of the truth while withholding key information. "Tactics of Deception" are nothing more than a sophisticated form of lying.
The Psychological Strategy Board became the renamed super-powered Operations Coordinating Board (OCB). The OCB had a vague ambiguous name that didn't provoke curiosity. It had more members than the Psychological Strategy board. It had the same mission, to use psychological strategy, propaganda, and mass media, to manipulate huge groups of individuals. It had a psychological warfare machine -- the United States Information Agency at its disposal. The USIA would be responsible for foreign policy propaganda for the NSC.
The National Security Council is responsible for recommending national security policy. The President for having the policy approved. The Operations Coordinating Board for coordinating interdepartmental aspects of operational policy plans to insure their timely and coordinated execution.
The National Security Council's recommended national security policy is the de facto foreign policy of the United States.The Department of State's Policy Planning Board scripted the policy for the NSC. The USIA Office of Research and Reference service prepared data on psychological factors and propaganda problems. The Policy Planning Board used the data in formulating psycho-political information policies for the NSC. In 1955 the Director of the USIA became a voting member of the Operations Coordinating board; USIA representatives were invited to attend meetings of the NSC Planning Board; and the USIA Director was invited to Cabinet meetings. 
In 1947 Council on Foreign Relations members George Kennan, Walter Lippmann, Paul Nitze, Dean Achenson, and Walter Krock took part in a psycho-political operation forcing the Marshall Plan on the American public. The PSYOP included an "anonymous" letter credited to Kennan which appeared in the Council on Foreign Relations magazine FOREIGN AFFAIRS. The letter opened the door for the CFR controlled Truman administration to take a hard line against the threat of Soviet expansion.
The Council on Foreign Relations controls public opinion by controlling both sides of an argument. The winning argument costs the American taxpayer billions of dollars. The billions are funneled into CFR controlled medicine, munition, food, and media industries at home and abroad. The billions are used to create and deliver massive psycho-political operations that manipulate people's reality worlds so they perceive their own best interests are being served, while in fact, some other plan and policy are carried out. The billions are used to keep the American's and people in other nations throughout the world in a state of controlled insanity and eternal war.
CFR members are placed on each side of the debate. The outcome is decided in advance. The side meant to lose withholds key information that would cause public opinion to go against Council plans. In the Marshall Plan PSYOP Kennan was for the plan and Lippmann against it. Kennan's side won. Years latter in his memoirs Kennan would say that upon reflection Lippmann was right.
In 1950 another PSYOP resulted in NSC-68, a key cold war document. The National Security Council didn't write it -- the Department of State Policy Planning Staff did. The cast of characters included CFR members George Kennan, Paul Nitze, and Dean Achenson. CFR member Kennan took the losing position, CFR members Achenson and Nitze the winning position. CFR engineered policies such as NSC-68 and the Marshall Plan have more to do with shaping Western and East Asian economies then Confucian or Judeo/Christian ethics ever did.
In September 1949 the Soviets exploded an atom bomb. Four months latter President Truman ordered the Atomic Energy Commission to begin H-bomb development. He also directed the NSC to reappraise American policies. The reappraisal was National Security Council Document 68 (NSC-68). According to NSC-68, "Events since the end of World War II have created a new power relationship in the world which must be viewed not as a temporary distortion but as a long-range fundamental realignment among nations...The US and USSR are the terminal poles of this new international axis."
NSC-68 was a document of dire expectations. It said the Soviet Union, was "animated by a new fanatical faith, antithetical to our own, and seeks to impose its absolute authority over the rest of the world." NSC-68 set up three premises -- (1) the Soviets wanted to conquer the world (2) there was a growing Soviet military superiority, and (3) it was impossible to negotiate with Soviet Leadership. NSC-68 warned, "Based on these premises an indefinite period of tension and danger is foreseen for the United States and for the West -- a period that should be defined less as a short-term crisis than as a permanent and fundamental alteration in the in the shape of international relations."
Achenson, the hard-liner in the PSYOP, laid the foundations for increased mobilization. Kennan took the other side arguing the end result would be exclusively a plea for military buildup, resulting in the virtual elimination of diplomacy. Achenson prevailed. CFR member Kennan asked to be relieved as chairman of the Policy Planning Staff early in 1950. CFR member Paul Nitze replaced him. Kennan was sent on a mission to South America -- some punishment! 
Under Nitze's direction, the State Department's drafts of NSC-68 became increasingly warlike. Achenson took to the road "preaching the premise of NSC-68." Since NSC-68 was conducted under the guise of the National Security Council -- Achenson didn't have to reveal its exact content. This made for lots less nosy and distracting questions from elected representatives of the people. 
NSC-68 set up and struck down three straw men: (1) a retreat to isolationism, (2) another preventive war, (3) a continuation of the status quo of reduced defense budgets and limited capabilities. NSC-68 called for America to "strike out on a bold and massive program of rebuilding the West's defensive potential to surpass that of the Soviet world, and of meeting each fresh challenge promptly and unequivocally." NSC-68 was a psycho-political operation to change the two hundred year old way Americans thought about war and taxes -- NSC-68 concluded:
"This means virtual abandonment by the United States of trying to distinguish between national and global security. It also means the end of subordinating security needs to the traditional budgeting restrictions; of asking 'How much security can we afford?' In other words, security must henceforth become the dominant element in the national budget, and other elements must be accommodated to it.
The wealth potential of the country is such that as much as 20 per cent of the gross national product can be devoted to security without causing national bankruptcy. This new concept of the security needs of the nation calls for annual appropriations of the order of $50 billion, or not much below their former wartime levels." 
NSC-68 was given to Truman on April 7, 1950. NSC-68 was a practical extension of the Truman doctrine. It had the US assume the role of world policeman and use 20 per cent of its gross national product ($50 billion in 1953) for arms. NSC-68 provided the justification -- the WORLD WIDE COMMUNIST THREAT! CFR member Under Secretary of State James Webb sent a memo to Truman warning he would face "the problem of how to get up enough public steam to support ... starting to build up our strength, and at the same time ... not get up so much as to look provocative." 
An Ad Hoc Committee met on May 2nd. William Schaub of the Budget Bureau started asking some basic questions: Wouldn't the buildup force the Russians into military action? What were the commitments, and at what point would the US fight to defend them? What would everything cost? Did it make sense to reduce complex world problems to a clash between the "free world" and a "slave society?" Were there no valid reasons why people under despotic governments turned to communism? Why did the research group minimize, "economic and social change as a factor in the underlying conflict." Schaub's questions never saw the light of day. On the 25th of June 1950 tanks and troops of the Soviet Puppet State of North Korea crossed the border into the American protectorate of South Korea. The United Nations authorized the United States to repel the invasion. It was not hard to get the national support needed for NSC-68 to become reality.
NSC-68 realized a major Council on Foreign Relations aim -- building the largest military establishment in Peace Time History. Within a year of drafting NSC-68, the security-related budget leaped to $22 billion, armed forces manpower was up to a million -- CFR medicine, munition, food, and media businesses were humming again. The following year the NSC-68 budget rose to $44 billion. In fiscal 1953 it jumped to $50 billion.Today (1997) we are still running $300 billion dollar defense budgets despite our enemy giving up because it went bankrupt. America would never turn back from the road of huge military spending. Spending that included the purchase of radioactive fallout on American citizens in the 50's, and buying thermonuclear waste from the Russians as we approach the year 2000. Spending resulting in a national debt of $5 Trillion Dollars that continues to grow, and interest payments of over $270 billion a year. Is the Council on Foreign Relations trying to make the United States economically vulnerable to influence from outside sources? Isn't that treason?
In 1953 Dean Achenson gave a seminar at Princeton, home of the Council on Foreign Relations Institute for Advanced Study (IASP). Achenson talked about NSC-68. Achenson was questioned as to how resistance to the policy was overcome. Achenson explained "Korea came along and saved us." What Achenson didn't explain was how Korea came along, and who made it happen -- the Council on Foreign Relations, the Institutes of International Affairs, and the Institutes of Pacific Relations.
In CHALLENGE TO AMERICA, Hedrick Smith targets Americans and Chinese and people of faith. Attacking your targets faith is an effective psychological warfare technique for demoralizing an enemy. Legalizing and encouraging immoral actions is one way of attacking a target groups faith. The CFR controls the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial systems. Encouraging witnesses to lie under oath encourages people to take the Lords name in vain; condones bearing false witness against ones neighbors; and allows the guilty to go free while encouraging people to steal and murder. Legalizing divorce legalizes and encourages adultery and promiscuity. Legalizing abortion legalizes and encourages murder. Smith attacks his targets faith by creating tension between followers of Western and Eastern religions. Smith creates the false impression that Western and Eastern religions are based upon different ethical theisms. This is misinformation. The ethical and moral foundations of Western and Eastern religions are remarkably similar.
Hedrick Smith is a Pulitzer Prize-winning correspondent who worked for The New York Times for 26 years. He worked in Washington, Moscow, Cairo, Saigon and Paris. Smith authored several national best selling books, including THE RUSSIANS (1976), THE POWER GAME: HOW WASHINGTON WORKS (1988), THE NEW RUSSIANS (1990) and AND RETHINKING AMERICA: A NEW GAME PLAN FROM AMERICAN INNOVATORS (1995).
Smith produced more than 20 documentaries. "INSIDE GORBACHEV'S USSR," provided viewers with candid, close-up portraits of the Soviet people, as they grappled with Mikhail Gorbachev's efforts to transform the Soviet political and economic system. "RETHINKING AMERICA" expanded on Smith's PBS documentary series, "CHALLENGE TO AMERICA" which showed how innovators in America, Japan and Germany are making schools, businesses, jobs and people work more effectively to meet the challenge of the new global economy.
Smith's documentaries are globalony. Smith's propaganda shifts the focus away from the America's Council on Foreign Relations, Western European/Commonwealth Institutes of International Affairs, and Eastern European/East Asian Institutes of Pacific Relations -- the real reason for the enormous rise in power of the East Asian economy. Smith's propaganda implies the East Asian economic system is somehow better than the American system. Meanwhile in East Asia psycho-political operations with an opposite spin are taking place. The East Asian people are being told the American system is superior to the East Asian system. By creating tension, confusion, and hate between Americans and East Asians the CFR fraternity of international co-conspirators can control trade and industry in both countries without competition. Pretty slick!
Smith's arguments confuse and misled. We are told the East Asian economic system,including Communist China, is a form of capitalism. We are told East Asian Capitalism is based upon Confucian ethics, which emphasize "an obligation to society, not just to personally getting ahead." We are told the American economic system emphasizes workers who work for their own aggrandizement and corporations that work for the profit of the shareholders. Smith is creating the perception that the American system is based upon selfishness and the East Asian system upon self-sacrifice.
If you feel anger toward East Asians Smith's propaganda effectively manipulated you. The truth is neither economic system is driven by the ethical and moral codes of the people of East Asia or America. The economic systems in East Asia and America are driven by a group of greedy, avaricious cheats and liars like Hedrick Smith, that belong to the CFR and its fraternal organizations throughout the world.
The Chinese Institute of Pacific Relations runs Chinese government and industry. In April of 1989 the Chinese Government demonstrated the great lengths it would go to to retain its workers. Students camped out in Beijing's Tiananamon Square protesting economic and political corruption in Chinese Government. Over 100,000 students and workers marched. Twenty other cities in China saw similar protests. Martial law was imposed. Army troops crushed protests in Tiananamon Square. Death toll estimates were between 500-7000. Ten thousand people were injured. Ten Thousand dissidents were arrested. Thirty-one dissidents were tried and executed.
CFR member Congressman Richard Gephardt (D-MO), recently informed the TV audience America will soon have to relinquish control to an "International Regime." Are we approaching the day when students and workers marching in the United States will be crushed by UN Peacekeeping Forces under the control of this International Regime? Who will control the Regime? The Council on Foreign Relations?
Are documentaries and books such as Smith's used to brainwash the American public while informing knowledgeable intelligence operatives about the climate of public opinion the Council on Foreign Relations wishes to achieve? Are historians and economists who try and present an accurate picture blacklisted by members of the CFR who pick and choose what to present the Public through Newspapers, Radio, and TV? Are they in competition with trained operatives who lead double lives and work for the USIA, State Department, and various intelligence organizations?
Suppressing an opponents views is as important a propaganda technique as getting your side of the story out. Ignoring history is a "tactic of deception" used to warp historical truth. Conspicuously absent from Pulitzer Prize winner Hedrick Smith's books and documentaries is the CFR role in world economic affairs. CHALLENGE TO AMERICA warps historical truth by failing to include the Council on Foreign Relations role in engineering the East Asian Rise to power. This is no accident. If the public is ignorant of the group responsible for instigating tension, it can't prevent that group from archiving its aims.
Is failure to report accurately a criteria for winning a Pulitzer? Is being a CFR member or insider a criteria for winning a Pulitzer?
In his book CLOAK & GOWN, CFR member Robin Winks explores the underlying bonds between the university and intelligence community. Winks, warps historical fact in the same manner as Smith. What Winks fails to explore is the underlying bonds between the Council on Foreign Relations and the Intelligence Community.
Is the Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, a training ground for CFR controlled State Department and Intelligence Organization operatives specializing in economic warfare? Is Yale University a Spy School? Do University Professors and students connected with intelligence organizations use their University status as a cover for the parts they play in well planned CFR State Department run psycho-political operations? Are unwitting Teachers and Students used as extras and set up as decoys and bait in well planned psycho-dramas? Do Smith and members of his documentary crew also work for the CIA, NSC, USIA, State Department, or other intelligence agencies?
In America the Council on Foreign Relations controls the State Department, the Intelligence Agencies, the Federal Reserve, the Executive office, and both houses of Congress. In East Asian countries, the Governments and Economic systems are run by Institutes of Pacific Relations -- CFR fraternal organizations. It is the CFR members and their fraternity brothers in other nations who work for their own aggrandizement while at the same time making sure corporations at home and abroad maximize their profits at the expense of their fellow countrymen.
In the late 1960's and early 1970's Council leaders Zbigniew Brzezinski, and David Rockefeller created the Trilateral Commission (TC), which included 60 members from Japan and 60 from Western Europe and 205 Americans. Almost all the American members belong to the Council on Foreign Relations. The Trilateral Commission's publicized goal was to develop closer economic and political cooperation among the industrialized democracies in dealing with economic competition among themselves and with challenges from underdeveloped countries. Its real goal was exactly the opposite -- to control the global economy through well planned psycho-political operations creating tension between peoples of different nations and faiths resulting in an eternal state of conflict and war.
The CFR and the Trilateral Commission dominate key positions in America's government, military, industries, media outlets and educational foundations and institutions. The CFR's membership is limited to 3,000, and the Trilateral Commission to 325 members. The Council on Foreign Relations propaganda machine manipulates American Citizens to accept the particular climate of opinion the CFR seeks to achieve in the world. CFR members working in an ad hoc committee called the "Special Group" and through a vast intragovernmental undercover infrastructure called the "Secret Team" formulate this opinion in the US. The CFR, has methodically taken over the Department of State, The Federal Reserve, and the CIA.
CFR member Zbigniew Brzezinski is also employed by Hopkins's Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS). CFR members Brzezinski (Public Law and Government Professor, Columbia ); Frederick C. Barghoorn (Political Science Professor, Yale ); and George A. Kelly (Politics Professor, Brandeis ); contributed to THE ART AND SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS. The book contains a series of case studies sponsored by the US Department of the Army.
Other CFR members and insiders employed by SAIS are Christian Herter, and Council on Foreign Relations Fellows Andrew J. Bacevich and Wilford L. Kohl.
Missing from the numerous articles, books, and documentaries of SAIS faculty members Nitze, Smith, Brzezinski , Herter, Bacevich, and Kohl is a connection between the Council on Foreign Relations and their influence in world affairs. Such oversight can hardly be coincidental. CFR member Nitze's "Not-Sees" are using American Tax payer dollars to create and deliver massive psycho-political operations that manipulate the American publics reality worlds so they perceive their own best interests are being served, while in fact, some other plan and policy is carried out to profit CFR members and their coconspirators in other nations. CFR member Nitze's "Not-Sees" are using American Tax-payer dollars to keep the American's in a state of controlled insanity and eternal war. Senator, that is treason.
Senator, Council on Foreign Relations members are a group of subtle fascists intent on creating one world order under their control. It is time to investigate the members of the Council on Foreign Relations, The Institutes of International Affairs, and the Institutes of Pacific Relations.
 Pollock, Daniel C Project Director & Editors De Mclaurin,Ronald, Rosenthal, Carl F., Skillings, Sarah A., The Art and Science of Psychological Operations: Case Studies of Military Application Volume One, Pamphlet No. 725-7-2, DA Pam 525-7-2, Headquarters Department of the Army Washington, DC, 1 April 1976 Vol 2 pg 806 - The Hungarian Self-Image And The Hungarian Image of Americans and Russians by Radio Free Europe, Audience and Public Opinion Research Department, February 1970 Excerpts from "The Hungarian Self-Image and the Hungarian Image of Americans, Russian, Germans, Rumanians, and Chinese"; Buchanan, W. Cantril, H. "How Nations See Each Other," University of Illinois Press, Urbana 1953; Cantril H. and Strunk M.: "Public Opinion 1935-1946" Princeton University Press
 Hadley Cantril, The Human Dimension: Experiences in Policy Research, Rutgers The State University, 1967 pg 32-34, 30-31; he War and Peace Studies of The Council On Foreign Relations 1939-1945, The Harold Pratt House 58th E. 68th Street, NY, 1946, pg. 24; Quigley, Carroll, Tragedy and Hope, Macmillan, New York 1966, p. 953
[4 ]Hadley Cantril, The Human Dimension: Experiences in Policy Research, Rutgers The State University, 1967 pg 32-34, 30, 33-34
Henderson, John W.,The United States Information Agency, 1966, pg. 52-53 Frederick A. Praeger, Publishers, New York, Washington, London, Book 14 in the Praeger Library of US Government Departments and Agencies series, consulting editors Ernest S. Griffith, former Dean and Professor Emeritus, School Of International Service, American University. Hugh Langdon Elsbree, former Chairmen, Department of Political Science, Dartmouth College. Both editors are formed directors, Legislative Reference Service, Library of Congress.
 Bernard A. Weisberger, Cold War Cold Peace The United States and Russia Since 1945, American Heritage 1984, Forbes Building, 60 Fifth Avenue, NY, NY 10011, Houghton Mifflin Company 1987 pg. 98; George J.A. O'Toole, Honorable Treachery, A History of US Intelligence, Espionage, and Covert Action from the American Revolution to the CIA, A Morgan Entrekin Book The Atlantic Monthly Press, New York (1991) pgs 301; Ronald Steel, Walter Lippmann and the American Century, Boston: Little Brown, 1980 p 448-449
Bernard A. Weisberger, Cold War Cold Peace The United States and Russia Since 1945, American Heritage 1984, Forbes Building, 60 Fifth Avenue, NY, NY 10011, Houghton Mifflin Company 1987 pg. 99
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